Friday, September 12, 2014

Supreme Court of Westchester County Recognizes a Divorce Obtained from Abu Dhabi

As Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce obtained from the Middle East, Central Asia and other Islamic nations, this author has been privileged to have been able to defend, successfully, clients by submitting legal opinions and affidavits in their support on issues related  to Islamic divorce to State and Federal Courts and to Immigration Boards. Some of these cases have been reported by major U.S. law journals. Following is a landmark case at New York Supreme Court of Westchester County, in which this author submitted an affidavit on behalf of a client. The honorable Court agreed with our argument and granted the client recognition of a divorce decree obtained in Abu Dhabi, including custody of children and a mahr of $250,000. You may read the judgment of the Supreme Court on the following link:


You may also read more  on the treatment of the Islamic mahr agreements in US courts, by visiting our website at http://www.islamicdivorceinusa.com

REGISTRATION OF MARRIAGES IN INDIA



By

Professor Gabriel Sawma


INTRODUCTION
In Hindu traditions and law, marriage was considered a sacrament; it was complete only on the performance of sacred rites and procedures consisted of a religious ceremony of the groom holding the hand of the bride,  and her three times around the nuptial fire, and the ceremony was completed on taking the seven steps by the couple.

It was understood that a marriage, solemnized in accordance with the sacred rites expressed by the ancient Hindu religious texts, was indissoluble, and  that a woman who give up her virginity through marriage, her body becomes incorporated with that of her husband, and therefore, such a marriage cannot be reversed, regardless of whether or not the marriage was consummated, whether or not the married couple lived together or lived separately, or whether the husband abandoned his wife, or the wife deserted her husband, as far as the Hindu sacred law was concerned, the marriage between husband and wife remained intact even if the husband dies, her remarriage to another man was out of question. 

This is not to ignore the fact that there existed traditional dissolution of marriages in what is known as ‘Customary Divorce’. To talk about dissolution of Hindu marriage in ancient times is not a clear cut proposal, as it presents us with enormous difficulties since ancient manuscripts regarding this topic are rear and various traditions had different rules.

Under the provisions of s. 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, registration of a Hindu marriage solemnized in India is merely recommended, but not a legal requirement.




EFFECTS OF SLEMNIZATION OF HINDU MARRIAGES IN INDIA
Indian law continues, up to 2006, to rely on customary forms of marriage solemnization to ascertain the validity of a marriage. The relevant legal provisions are found in section 7 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which is quite brief and clear. It reads the following:

          S.7 – Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage.
(1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto.
(2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the saptapadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire), the marriage becomes complete and binding when the seventh step is taken.

This is indicative of the Indian law recognizing marriage for Hindus as samskara, a sacrament rather than purely a contract. Unlike Islamic marriages whereby a nikah being a solemn contract of married couples before Allah. For more on Islamic marriage and divorce, see our website at http://www.muslimdivorceinusa.com

A problem may arise in connection with non-registration of Hindu marriages in India on one hand, and recognition of solemnization of marriages on the other hand. When a marriage is not required to be registered with the state, questions need to be raised about what is ‘customary’ in a particular kind of marriage? Section 3 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 is the guiding provision, it reads:

          S. 3 – Definition.
          In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
(a)  The expressions “custom” and “usage” signify any rule which, having been continuously and uniformly observed for a long time, has obtained the force of law among Hindus in any local area, tribe, community, group or family;
Provided that the rule is certain and not unreasonable or opposed to public policy provided further that in the case of a rule applicable only to a family it has not been discontinued by the family.

A non-registered marriage in India caused abuse. In some cases, registered marriage was not recognized in a court of law, and State governments, did not take the trouble to provide for the registration of marriages. The courts in a number of cases have taken the initiatives for compulsory registration of marriages as we shall see below.



REGISTATION OF CIVIL STATUS BY COURT ORDER
The provisions for the registration of marriage in India, have been provided under different Acts. For example, Special Marriage Act, 1954 (SMA), Christian Marriage Act, 1872, Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936. Registration of Christian marriages under the Christian Marriage Act, is required, and so are Marriages solemnized under the Special Marriage Act. But marriages under the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA) did not require registration under the Act.

Hindu Marriage Act neither lays down the procedure for solemnization of marriage nor makes calls for the registration to be compulsory. Non-registration has landed many women in a relationship, which, while demanding from her to fulfill the duties of a wife, leaves her with neither the right under the law nor recognition in society. Compulsory registration would check fraudulent marriages, apart from non-age and bigamous marriages, at the same time, it would establish paternity of children.

In a recent judgment, the Supreme Court of India issued directions in Seema v. Ashwani Kumar, that the marriages of all persons who are citizens of India belonging to various religions should be made registration of solemnized marriages, compulsory. Registration of marriages has a great evidentiary value in the matters of custody of children, rights of children, and the age of parties in the marriage. The Supreme Court has, thus directed the states and central government to take concrete steps in this direction.

Now, registration of marriage is a legal requirement in most of the states in India. Moreover, for visa and immigration purposes, a formal marriage certificate from the Registrar of Marriages is required.

DOCUMENTS FOR REGISTERING A MARRIAGE UNDER THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT
The HMA of 1955 is applicable to Hindus, Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists. A religious marriage which has already been solemnized can be registered under the HMA. The HMA is applicable to cases where both husband and wife are Hindus, Buddhists, Jains or Sikhs or where they have converted into any of these religions. The HMA provides for the conditions of a marriage where under the bridegroom should be the age of 21 years and bride of 18 years, they both should not be within the degree of prohibited relationship. Following are the documents required for registering a marriage under HMA:

1-Application form duly signed by the married couple,
2-Documents related to the date of birth of both parties, minimum age of both parties. Affidavit by the couple stating place and date of marriage, date of birth, marital status at the time of marriage and roof of nationality,
3-Two passport size photographs of both, and one marriage photograph, and a marriage invitation card, if available,
4-If marriage was solemnized in a religious place, a certificate from the clergy who solemnized the marriage is required,
5-An affidavit confirming that the parties are not related to each other within the prohibited degree of relationship as per Hindu Marriage Act or Special Marriage Act as the case may be attested,
6-Authenticated copy of a divorce decree in case there is a divorce, or death certificate if either spouse is a widow,
7-If either party to the marriage belong to a religion other than Hindu Buddhist, Jain or Sikh, a conversion certificate from the clergy who solemnized the marriage is needed,
8-All documents excluding receipt should be attested by a Gazette Officer.



DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

Gabriel Sawma is a lawyer with Middle East Background, and a recognized authority on Islamic law of marriage, divorce, and custody of children, Professor of Middle East Constitutional Law and Islamic Sharia (law), and Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce in U.S. Courts. Admitted to the Lebanese Bar Association. Former Associate Member of the New York State Bar Association, and former Associate Member of the American Bar Association.

Professor Sawma lectured at the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) in New York State and universities in the U.S., Europe, and the Middle East. He wrote Affidavits and legal opinions to State Courts, Immigration authorities throughout the United States.

Travelled extensively to Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Gulf region, and other countries in the Middle East, and wrote numerous articles on Islamic divorce in USA and abroad.
Prof. Sawma speaks, reads and writes, Arabic, English, French and a few other Semitic languages spoken in the Middle East.

Interviewed by the following news organizations;

Professor of Islamic Finance at the University of Liverpool (2012)

Lectured on Islamic Sharia at Fairleigh Dickinson University:


CONTACT INFORMATION
Tel. (609) 915-2237

VISIT OUR WEBSITES AT THE FOLLOWING LINKS:

For more information about the author, see our CV at:
Visit us on Facebook at:

Monday, June 30, 2014

Supreme Court of Westchester County Recognizes a Divorce Obtained from Abu Dhabi

As Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce obtained from the Middle East, Central Asia and other Islamic nations, this author has been privileged to have been able to defend, successfully, clients by submitting legal opinions and affidavits in their support on issues related  to Islamic divorce to State and Federal Courts and to Immigration Boards. Some of these cases have been reported by major U.S. law journals. Following is a landmark case at New York Supreme Court of Westchester County, in which this author submitted an affidavit on behalf of a client. The honorable Court agreed with our argument and granted the client recognition of a divorce decree obtained in Abu Dhabi, including custody of children and a mahr of $250,000. You may read the judgment of the Supreme Court on the following link:


You may also read more  on the treatment of the Islamic mahr agreements in US courts, by visiting our website at http://www.islamicdivorceinusa.com
Qatari Divorce in U.S. Courts
By
Prof. Gabriel Sawma

INTRODUCTION
Qatar, Arabic قطر is a small Arab state, situated in both the northern and eastern hemispheres and is located in the Middle East or South West Asia. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. A strait in the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby island state of Bahrain. Qatar is a peninsula of 4,412 square mile, less than half the size of Rhode Island, with a relatively small population of a little over two million most of whom are foreign nationals working in Qatar. 

The country is ruled by the al-Thani family since the mid-1800s. The ruler has a title Emir, or Amir, and the country has significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Emir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, Hamad bin Khalipha al-Thani, overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995. Qatar has the world’s third largest natural gas reserves after Russia and Iran. This enabled the country to attain the third-highest per capita income in the world after Luxembourg and Norway. On June 25, 2013, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed power to his son Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.

In July 1999, the Emir appointed a committee to draft a permanent constitution for Qatar. The tenets of the Constitution are based on Qatar’s affiliation to the Arab world and the teaching of Islam. On April 29, 2003, a public referendum approved the new Constitution; it was signed by the Emir on June 8, 2004. 

The main provisions in the Constitution include Qatar to be an independent sovereign Arab state; its religion is Islam and Islamic Shari’a is the main source of legislation (Article 1). Qatar’s official language is Arabic. The Constitution provides for the establishment of an Advisory Council, two-thirds of whom are elected and the remainder appointed by the Emir. The rule of the state is hereditary, following the male descendants of the Al-Thani family. The heir must be a Muslim of Qatari Muslim mother (Article 8).


THE JUDICIARY IN QATAR
Qatar has two tiers of judiciary, (1) civilian, (2) religious. The civilian judiciary is divided into two branches: civil and criminal courts.

In 1999, the government of Qatar established the Supreme Judiciary Council. This body presides over all court rulings as well as the appointment, transfer and assignment of judges. The responsibilities and goals of the Council is to assert judicial independence, meet the level of competence as outlined in the law that established the Council, and provide judgment on legal disputes in all levels of the court system.

The Law of Judiciary was issued in 2003; it provides provisions for the courts to do their judicial duties, and divides the courts among three layers: (1) Mahkamat al-Tamyeez (Court of Cassation) –the highest court; (2) Mahkamat al-Istinaf (the Courts of Appeals) which looks into appeals from the lower courts in the area of criminal penalties, criminal, civil, commercial, personal status (family), inheritance, and administrative disputes; (3) Mahkamat al-Ibtidaiyyat (Courts of the First Instance), which adjudicates in the areas of criminal penalties, criminal cases, civil, commercial and personal status (family), inheritance, and administrative disputes. The Supreme Judiciary Council may establish courts of the first instance in other cities around the country.


MARRIAGES IN THE STATE OF QATAR
Marriage, divorce and custody of children for Muslims living in Qatar are governed by Qanun Al-Ussra (Family Law) of 2006.  The law consists of 301 articles, and is based on the principles of the Hanbali School of Jurisprudence.

According to this law, marriages between Qatari men and non-Qatari women may take please provided that permission is given by a government appointed body called “Marriages Committee.” Muslim weddings take place in Sharia courts, while non-Muslims may marry in a handful of designated churches in Doha.

A Muslim man may marry a non-Muslim woman. However, a Muslim woman is not allowed under Islamic law to marry non-Muslim unless he converts to Islam, otherwise their marriage will not be recognized and she might be subject to prosecution.

Islamic marriage in Qatar follows the Shari law whereby the marriage is a civil contract, in which an offer to marry and acceptance have to be announced in the presence of two Muslim, male witnesses. The law requires that both parties meet fitness requirements, and agree to a “mahr”.

The minimum age for marriage is set at 16 for a girl and 18 for a boy.


MUSLIM DIVORCE LAW IN QATAR
Muslim divorce in Qatar is regulated by articles 101through 164 of the Family Law of 2006. Accordingly, a divorce many take place in three different ways: (1) Talaq initiated by the husband; (2) mukhalaa, i.e. by consent of both parties; And, faskh, i.e. by judicial decree (Article 101).

Article 109 allows a divorce initiated by the husband to be delegated to a second party or to the wife. When the husband initiates divorce, he has to do that in the presence of a judge. The judge will do his best for reconciliation before he records the divorce, (Article 113).  After recording the divorce, the judge assigns the the amount of ‘nafaqa’ (similar to alimony) during the period of ‘iddat’ (i.e., three menstrual cycles). He will also assign the amount of ‘nafaqa’ for the children (i.e., child support), (Art. 114).

Another form of terminating the marital status is by both parties agreeing to a “Khul” divorce, in which the wife relinquishes her financial rights and the “mahr”, (Art. 122).
Articles 123 to 164 of the Family Law set out the grounds on which the wife may seek “Faskh” (i.e. terminating the marriage by separation) in situations where the husband is found to be inept, not aid his wife maintenance or has been missing for more than a year. In such situation, the judge will try reconciliation first; once reconciliation fails, then divorce is granted.


RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN DIVORCE JUDGMENTS BY STATE COURTS
A foreign divorce judgment is recognized generally in a state in the U.S. on the basis of comity, Hilton v. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113, 163-64 (1895). Comity means courtesy, respect, or mutual accommodation; in practical terms, it means that each state can decide for itself which foreign country judgment of divorce it will recognize and which it won’t. According to this doctrine, a U.S. court has the inherent power to recognize and enforce a foreign judgment of divorce unless there is some defect of jurisdiction shown to be against the public policy of the state. Absent some showing of fraud in the procurement of the foreign country judgment, or that recognition of the judgment would violate a strong public policy of the state, the court may recognize a foreign divorce judgment.

In considering whether public policy of the state is violated, the court should consider the validity of the foreign court’s jurisdiction over the parties and the similarity of the grounds for divorce with those which would be permitted in that state. And, if not, whether the grounds for divorce are repugnant to public policy of the state or not.
As Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce obtained from the Middle East, Central Asia and other Islamic nations, this author has been privileged to have been able to assist clients and attorneys by submitting opinions and affidavits to State and Federal Courts, and to Immigration Boards throughout the United States on cases involving Islamic marriage, Islamic divorce and custody of children. Some of these cases have been reported by major U.S. law journals.

Following is a landmark case at the Supreme Court of Westchester County, in which this author submitted an Affidavit on behalf of a client. The Court agreed with our arguments and granted our client recognition of a divorce decree obtained in Abu Dhabi, including custody of children and a mahr of $250,000. You may read the judgment of the Court at this link:


DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

Gabriel Sawma is a lawyer with Middle East Background, and a recognized authority on Islamic law of marriage, divorce, and custody of children, Professor of Middle East Constitutional Law and Islamic Sharia (law), and Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce in U.S. Courts. Admitted to the Lebanese Bar Association. Former Associate Member of the New York State Bar Association, and former Associate Member of the American Bar Association.

Professor Sawma lectured at the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) in New York State and universities in the U.S., Europe, and the Middle East. He wrote Affidavits and legal opinions to State Courts, Immigration authorities throughout the United States.

Travelled extensively to Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Gulf region, and other countries in the Middle East, and wrote numerous articles on Islamic divorce in USA and abroad.
Prof. Sawma speaks, reads and writes, Arabic, English, French and a few other Semitic languages spoken in the Middle East.

Interviewed by the following news organizations;

Professor of Islamic Finance at the University of Liverpool (2012)

Lectured on Islamic Sharia at Fairleigh Dickinson University:


CONTACT INFORMATION
Tel. (609) 915-2237

VISIT OUR WEBSITES AT THE FOLLOWING LINKS:

For more information about the author, see our CV at:
Visit us on Facebook at:

Friday, February 28, 2014

IRAQI ISLAMIC DIVORCE IN U.S. COURTS


By
Prof. Gabriel Sawma

Married Muslim Iraqi men, with U.S. citizenship, travel to Iraq, obtain a divorce decree from a court of Personal Status and come back to the United States seeking recognition of their Islamic divorce in a state court. This article deals with the legal ramifications of such a divorce decree.

Introduction
Iraq was declared a republic in 1958 after a coup that put an end to the monarchy. Since then, the country was ruled until 2003 by a series of strongmen. The last was SADDAM Husayn who was deposed by the U.S.-led allied coalition invasion of Iraq. He was executed on the first day of Eed al-Adha, December 30, 2006.

Iraq is the region known outside the Islamic world as Mesopotamia, or the land between two great rivers, The Euphrates and Tigris. Iraq’s population is estimated by the IMF to be 21,234.000. (April 2009 IMF est.) In ancient history, Iraq was the country of the earliest civilizations. The ruins of Ur, Babylon, and other ancient cities are situated in Iraq, as is the legendary location of the Garden of Eden.

The dominant ethnic group in Iraq is Muslim Arabs, who account for around three-quarters of the population. There are approximately 17% Kurds, 3% Turkmen, 2% Christians (Assyrians, Chaldeans, Syrian Orthodox and Syrian Catholics), and other 1% (Armenians, Circassians, Shabaks, and Mandeans). Among the Muslims of Iraq there are around 53% Shia and 44% Sunni. Arabic is the official language of Iraq, and is spoken and understood by almost all the population. Kurdish is the largest minority language, and has regional language status in Iraqi Kurdistan. Aramaic, once spoken by the whole country, is now only spoken by the Christian minorities of Assyrians, Chaldeans, Syrian Orthodox and Syrian Catholics. Azerbaijani is spoken in pockets of nofthern Iraq, and Persian in pockets of southern Iraq. Numerous languages of the Caucasus are also spoken by minorities across the country.


The Legal System in Iraq
Iraq has a mixed legal system that governs both Sunni and Shia jurisprudence for the law applied in Islamic religious courts (Sharia Courts). [Currently, there are efforts in Iraq to enact a code of personal status for the Shia sect]. Islamic family law is ruled by The Iraqi Law of Personal Status 1959; it was based on the report of a commission appointed a year earlier to draft a code of family law for the Muslim community in Iraq.

Christians and Jews are governed by their own family laws. Article 2 of the Constitution of Iraq states that “Islam is the official religion of the State and it is fundamental source of legislation: (A) No law that contradicts the established provisions of Islam may be established”. Section 2 of Article 2 states that “This Constitution guarantees the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guarantees the full religious rights of all individuals to freedom of religious belief and practice such as Christians, Yazedis, and Mandi Sabeans.”

The courts of Personal Status hear all cases involving Sunni and Shia Muslims in the areas of marriage, divorce, legitimacy, custody of children and inheritance and waqf (real property owned by Islamic religious organizations such as schools, mosques, etc.) These courts also hear cases involving non-Iraqi Muslims, provided that their country of residence does not apply civil law for their divorce.

Personal Status Courts are available everywhere there are Courts of First Instance in Iraq. Each of these Personal Status Courts is headed by a judge who presides over the Court of the First Instance. Rulings of the Court of Personal Status are appealed to the Court of Appeal. Judgments are given by a majority rule. The grounds for appeal can be either factual or legal and either party may submit further evidence or a request to hear witnesses. Arguments may be oral, or written. It is also possible to introduce additional evidence to the Court of Appeal and/or request that additional witnesses be called to testify in the court.

The court of Cassation is the most supreme judicial body for Personal Status in Iraq. This Court looks into appeals challenging the rulings of the appellate courts. The Court of Cassation consists of several circuits, one of which is the Personal Status Circuit. Judgments of the Court of Cassation are final and binding.


The Law of Divorce in Iraq
Article 37 of Personal Status Law (PSL) states that the husband can perform divorce by pronouncing three repudiations such as saying “I divorce you”, or “I divorce my wife”, or “my wife is divorced”. Paragraph 2 of the article considers a three consecutive pronouncement in one session as only one divorce. In other words, the husband may divorce his wife three times on three separate intervals.

A divorce initiated by the husband may be revocable or irrevocable. A revocable divorce will suspend the marriage until three menstrual periods, during which the couple can resume their marital relations. If the three menstrual periods have passed, they can remarry by agreeing to a new marriage contract. The divorce becomes irrevocable if the husband divorces his wife three times on three interval periods. At that time, the wife cannot remarry her husband unless she remarries a second man and get a divorce from him.


Validity of a Divorce Obtained from Iraq
A divorce decree obtained in a foreign jurisdiction is entitled to recognition under the principle of comity, unless the decree offends public policy of the state in whose jurisdiction recognition is sought. The court who issued the foreign divorce judgment must have jurisdiction over the divorce. The courts in the United States will generally accord recognition to the judgments of divorce rendered in a foreign country under the doctrine of comity, which is the equivalent of full faith and credit given by the courts to judgments of a sister state.

Comity means courtesy, respect, or mutual accommodation; in practical terms, it means that each state can decide for itself which foreign country judgment it will recognize and which it won’t. According to this doctrine, a U.S. court has the inherent power to recognize and enforce a foreign judgment of divorce unless there is some defect of jurisdiction shown to be against the public policy of the state. Absent some showing of fraud in the procurement of the foreign country judgment, or that recognition of the judgment would violate a strong public policy of the state, the court may recognize a foreign divorce judgment.

In considering whether public policy of the state is violated, the court should consider the validity of the foreign court’s jurisdiction over the parties and the similarity of the grounds for divorce with those which would be permitted in that state. And, if not, whether the grounds for divorce are repugnant to public policy of the state or not.

As Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce obtained from the Middle East, Central Asia and other Islamic nations, this author has been privileged to have been able to defend clients successfully by submitting legal opinions and affidvits on issues related to Islamic divorce to State and Federal Courts, and to Immigration Boars throughout the United States. Some of these cases have been reported by major U.S. law journals.

Following is a landmark case at New York Supreme Court of Westchester County, in which this author wrote an affidavit on behalf of the client. The honorable court agree with our argument and granted the client recognition of a divorce decree obtained from Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, including custody of the children, and a mahr of $250,000. You may read the judgment on the following link: http://law.justia.com/cases/new-york/other-courts/2012/2012-ny-slip-op-51875-u.html

DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.


Gabriel Sawma is a lawyer with Middle East Background, and a recognized authority on Islamic law or marriage, divorce, and custody of children. Professor of Middle East Constitutional Law and Islamic law. Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce in U.S. Courts and Canada. Admitted to the Lebanese Bar Association. Former Associate Member of the New York Bar Association and the American Bar Association.

Professor Sawma’s experience in Islamic and Middle East laws comes from his study and practice of law in the Middle East.

Prof. Sawma lectured at the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) in New York State and wrote many affidavits in connection with Islamic divorce to immigration authorities, Federal Courts and State Family Courts throughout the United States. Travelled numerous times to Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Gulf region and other countries in the Middle East, and wrote extensively on Islamic divorce in USA and abroad.

Interviewed by:

Other News Organizations.

Taught Islamic Finance at the University of Liverpool.


Lectured on Islamic Sharia at Fairleigh Dickinson University: 
http://view.fdu.edu/default.aspx?id=7899.


Contact Information

Tel. (609) 915-2237

Or visit our websites at the following links:

For more information on the author, please see this link: